Trading Partner Portal: Poland
Poland is a high income country east of Germany in Central Europe. It has a population of nearly 37.9 million people with a total gross domestic product (GDP) of $585.6 billion in 2017. Poland is also a member of the European Union (EU) and was the only member of the EU to escape recession in wake of the 2008 global economic crisis. Poland has expanded policies to support economic liberalization and has benefited from strong service and industry sectors. World Bank, CIA
The United States and Poland have a beneficial trade relationship. Exports to Poland from the US have steadily increased since 2009. In 2019, the US exported $5.96 billion of goods to Poland, up from $5.3 billion in 2018. Approximately $1.89 billion of the exports were categorized as transportation equipment, which accounted for 31.8% of total exports from the US to Poland. Other top exports from the US to Poland were computer and electronic products, with a total of $700 million, oil and gas totaled $525 million, and non electrical machinery, with a total of $440 million. In concurrence with the trend of the exports to Poland, imports from Poland have also steadily increased from 2009. The United States imported $8.3 billion worth of goods from Poland in 2019. 22.8% and $1.9 billion of those imports were transportation equipment. The US also imported $1.2 million of non-electrical machinery and $1.1 billion of computer and electronic products. US Department of Commerce
According to a White House Fact Sheet in July 2016, “more than 200,000 Poles are employed directly by U.S. companies, and U.S. firms are some of the largest sources of foreign direct investment in Poland, having invested more than $30 billion in the country.” In 2018, the United States had $12.97 billion of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Poland (BEA). Polish FDI into the U.S. was undisclosed in 2018, however in 2017 Polish FDI supported 800 jobs in the U.S. The top industry sectors for Polish FDI in the US are: software and IT services, consumer products, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, communications, and consumer electronics. (Select USA)
Poland- California Trade
In the United States, California is one of the largest exporters of goods to Poland. California exported $257 million of goods to Poland in 2019, 28.4% of which were computer and electronic products with a total of $73.2 million. Transportation equipment was another leading export totaling $43.37 million, followed by agricultural products with a value of roughly $26.48 million. California is also the fourth largest importer of Polish goods in the United States. In 2019, the California imported $404 million worth of goods from Poland. The largest import was non-electrical machinery, accounting for 16.5% of total imports into California from Poland ($66.8 million). Food manufacturers were another leading import to California from Poland, with a value of $50 million. US Department of Commerce
Explore Poland: News from the World and Practical Tips (page 6)
International Business Newsmag, May 2020
FACT SHEET: U.S.-Poland Relations
White House, July 8, 2016
Trade Agreements and Issues
Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP)
Poland is one of the nations that is currently involved in negotiations for the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) with the rest of the European Union and the United States. The United States and the European Union have a strong bilateral trade relationship totaling $698.7 billion in 2015. A free trade agreement, such as TTIP, desires to strengthen that relationship by eliminating tariffs, aligning compatible regulations to open trade, and furthering trade in the service sector.
Three Seas Initiative (3SI)
The Three Seas Initiative (3SI), getting its name from the three seas that border the region, was launched in 2015 by Croatian President Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović and Polish President Andrzej Duda to promote interconnectivity on energy, infrastructure, and digitization projects in Central and Eastern Europe. There are 12 EU member states that are part of the initiative: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia. The main goal of the venture is to create a “north-south” energy and infrastructure corridor in the region. The region has a total population of 10 million and a combined GDP of about $1.7 trillion, and has emerged as a significant driver of European economic growth. (Atlantic Council)
The U.S. has committed up to $1 billion to the 3SI, adding momentum to the project and its investment fund, helping to attract international private capital to the region. The initiative has been endorsed diplomatically by the United States, Germany, and the European Union, among others.
Pompeo Pledges $1 Billion in US Support for European Energy Initiative
The Hill, February 15, 2020
On May 27, 2015, the California Chamber of Commerce held an International Forum on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership and the Transpacific Partnership with speakers including members of the United States Chamber of Commerce, representatives from five American Chambers of Commerce from abroad, and two ambassadors. Also in attendance was a delegation totaling 25 members of the AmCham community representing Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, France, Greece, Ireland, Israel, Kosovo, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Norway, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, and Turkey.